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Exosomes are small lipid bilayer vesicles produced by most cells, which contain abundant nucleic acids, proteins and lipids. Exosomes have been widely used in the research of tumor therapy drugs because of their good biocompatibility, circulation ability in vivo and material delivery capacity. Invasion, metastasis and drug resistance are the main causes of tumor treatment failure. Exosomes, as the main means of intercellular transport of nucleic acids and proteins, play a key role in promoting drug resistance, invasion and metastasis of tumor cells. In addition to being the target of liquid biopsy for cancer diagnosis, exosomes also play an increasingly important role in cancer treatment, including regulation of exosome expression, use of exosomes as drug delivery system, and engineering modification of exosomes for targeted therapy.
Conventional chemotherapeutic drugs (paclitaxel, tamoxifen, eccorine, etc.) have strong cytotoxicity and weak tissue selection ability, and often cause serious toxic and side effects in the treatment of cancer. Cell-derived exosomes not only have good biological compatibility but also have strong biological delivery capacity. Therefore, exosomes are gradually becoming carriers for cancer chemotherapy drug delivery. At present, the main ways of exosome drug loading include mixing, transfection reagent, ultrasonic, freeze-thaw cycle, electroporation, etc.
Figure 1. Examples of drug loading methods post-EV isolation. (Walker S, et al. 2019)
Figure 2. Electroporation of exosomes. (Jessica Wahlgren, et al. 2016)
Therefore, extracellular vesicles (EVs), including exosomes, may represent a promising drug delivery strategy for exogenous small molecule and RNA-based therapies.
Exosomes contain specifical cargos, such as RNAs, lipids, and proteins. The cargos amount and composition of exosomes depend on the cell type from which they are released, which makes them useful for biomarker discovery and functional characterization. Creative Biostructure can provide multiple fluorescence labeling strategies (labeling with lipid or protein) for in vivo and in vitro visualization studies.
Figure 3. Strategies for exosome labeling and imaging. (Steven Ting-Yu Chuo, et al. 2018)
Figure 4. The uptake of exosomes by THP-1 macrophages. (Zhuyu Wang, et al. 2019)
Exosome labeled with Lipophilic dyes (PKH67, green)
THP-1 macrophages labeled with nuclear staining reagent (Hoechst 33342, blue)
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are small membranous particles that play a crucial role in intercellular signaling and communication. Based on its molecular transfer function, high biocompatibility, and low cytotoxicity to normal tissue, exosomes become a promising carrier for therapeutic molecular delivery system. It had been reported that many membrane proteins are displayed on exosome membranes, such as CD81, CD82, CD37, CD63 and CD9, which can serve as anchoring scaffolds to directly display peptides/antigens on exosomes.
Figure 5. System design of surface engineering of exosome. (Zachary Stickney, et al. 2016)
With our exosome platform, Creative Biostructure can provide the custom service for production exosome with loading therapy (proteins, nucleic acids, and chemical compounds). We focus on exosome research and are committed to providing exosome one-stop service, including exosome isolation, identification, tracking, exosome cell testing, related functional experiments such as drug carrier design and other integrated services.
If you are interested in our Exosome Engineering Services, please feel free to contact us. We are looking forward to cooperating with you.